Five laws of politics: A follow-up

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Abstract/Description: A Word about the Data, Assembling a collection of election outcomes across several regions, different types of government and many years required making judgment calls. This happened more frequently in parliamentary systems characterized by a highly fractured party system, frequent falls of government, minority or caretaker governments, and changes in prime ministers among parties of the same coalition or after the reconfiguration of coalitions or cabinets between or after elections. Also, the choice of the first election in any series was contingent on a number of country-specific factors. In the oldest democracies, the start year is usually the first election under universal male suffrage; in younger ones, the first election after independence or the founding or re-emergence of democracy (in France, the Fifth Republic), whichever came later, and the outcome had to be clear. In difficult cases, it was impossible to eliminate all arbitrariness in the choice of the first election or the possibility of error in an election outcome. In those instances, I added a comment explaining my decision. It is my hope that any error of fact or interpretation will be called to my attention, and I will happily entertain suggestions for adding any country omitted on account of the aforementioned difficulties in deciphering outcomes in its complex multi-party system.
Date Issued: 2019